International Journal of Agriculture Extension and Social Development
2021, Vol. 4, Issue 1, Part B
Evaluation of functional groups and phytochemical composition of selected medicinal plants
Nwanekwu Ken, Obiukwu CE and Anumihe OC
Plants contain several active ingredients which are medicinal and can be therapeutic in nature. Phytochemicals present in plant helps prevent diseases in organisms by triggering host defense against disease. Phytochemicals belong to different functional groups which are known to have anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities which are capable of medicinal effects in human beings. The present medicinal plants selected for the study include leaves of pawpaw (Carica papaya), guava (Psidium gujava) and orange (Citrus cinensis). The Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometer analysis (FT-IR) was performed to know the functional groups of the active components present in the leave extract based on the peaks values in the region of Infra-Red radiation either directly or by inference while Quantitative phytochemical analysis of the plants extract were performed using Gas Chromatograph Flame Ionizing Detector (GCFID) to quantify the phytochemicals found in the plant extract. Results From the spectral analysis for the extracts, showed the characteristic peak area ranges from 723.1 cm-1 to 3406.8 cm-1 for Psidium gujava, 805.1 cm-1 to 3336.0 cm-1 for Citrus cinensis and from 723.1 cm-1 to 34388.2 cm-1 for Carica papaya, which corresponded to 16 (sixteen) distinctive functional groups including alcohol (OH), alkane (CH), amine (NH), aromatic (CH), α,β-unsaturated ketone (C=C), nitro compound (N-O), sulfonamide (S=O), secondary alcohol (C-O), sulfoxide (S=O), alkene (C=C), carboxylic (OH), Isothiocyanate (N=C=S), flouro compound (C-F), aliphatic ester (C-O), alkyne (CΞC) and thiocyanate (S-CΞN). The phytochemicals present in leave extracts generally include proanthocyanin, lunamarin, quinine, epihedrine, anthocyanin, flavan, sapogenin, phenol, flavonones, naringenin, steroids, epicatechin, kaempferol, phytate, flavone, oxalate, catechin, resveratrol and tannin. The plant exreacts can be used for diverse medicinal purposes.